Book Trades Manuscripts

Isaiah Thomas' gift of his own papers initiated the Society's acquisition of book trade manuscripts, and today the early American book trades continue to be a central focus of all of the AAS collections.

 


A. Pomeroy & Co. Subscription Notebooks, 1871-1872

Alexander Pomeroy (1829-1885), of Rochester, N.Y., was a financier, mapmaker, and publisher. During the 1870s, Pomeroy mapped the states of New York and Pennsylvania for the United States government. He then published atlases of various New York and Pennsylvania counties under the name A. Pomeroy & Co. and sold them by subscription. This collection contains six subscription notebooks kept by agents who gathered subscriptions in Susquehanna County, Penn., for the _Atlas of Susquehanna Co., Pennsylvania_. Each book contains a list of subscribers, the number of volumes ordered, and the subscriber's business, and, occasionally, location. Some of the volumes have notes regarding the orders.

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Isaac and Seth Adams Account Book, 1843-1848

Isaac Adams (1802-1883), an inventor of printing machinery, was born in Rochester, New Hampshire, the son of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Horne) Adams. His first work was in a cotton mill, and would give him the experience with machinery for his later inventions. In 1824 he found a job with a machine shop in Boston, MA, and three years later invented the famous Adams Power Press which revolutionized printing, and was in prominent use for aver 50 years. With his brother, Seth Adams, he then formed the I & S Adams firm in 1836. This volume, from the Isaac & Seth Adams Co., shows detailed accounts for the company including specific printing machinery sales. The Adams Power Press, invented in 1827, were at first built from wood and later in iron. They would print sheets thirty by forty inches at a relatively fast speed. This invention was an important turning point in bookbinding and printing production.

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John Babcock and Sons Business Records, 1800-1871

Among the prominent early nineteenth century printers in Connecticut were the Babcocks. John Babcock (1764-1843) started in Albany, N.Y., moved to Springfield, Mass., and then to Hartford (c. 1800-c. 1815), before settling in New Haven. He went bankrupt in 1825 and his business in New Haven and a branch in Charleston, S.C., was assumed by his son, Sidney (1797?-1884), proprietor of "Sidney's Press" in New Haven. These business records and incoming correspondence illuminate the Hartford and New Haven printing activity and political interests of John Babcock while the business career of Sidney Babcock is reflected in the receipts and correspondence of the period of his proprietorship.

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John Bailhache Papers, 1855-1952

John Bailhache (1787-1857) was an early Midwest newspaper publisher. He published the Chillicothe, Ohio, Fredonia, The Scioto Gazette, The Ohio State Journal, and the Alton, Ill., Telegraph; served as state printer in Ohio from 1823 to 1831; and branched out into job printing in Columbus and Alton. Bailhache served one term each in the Ohio and Illinois House of Representatives and served a year (1835) as Mayor of Columbus, as well as serving as judge of Court of Common Pleas in Chillicothe, 1825 to 1828. This collection contains a seventy-five page autobiography of John Bailhache, as well as a typed transcript, "...written by himself at the request, and for the use of his children. 1855." In general, this autobiography describes well the uncertain economic conditions in the Midwest in the first half of the nineteenth century and the marginal fiscal status of early Midwest newspapers. In particular, it gives a fairly comprehensive view of Bailhache's boyhood and training on the Isle of Jersey, his departure for the United States in 1810, and a career of forty-three years printing, editing, and publishing newspapers in Circleville, Chillicothe, and Columbus, Ohio, and Alton, Ill.

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William Augustus Bartow Day Book, 1825-1835

William Augustus Bartow (1794-1869) was born in Westchester, New York, the son of Augustus and Clarina Bartow. He served in the War of 1812. Bartow was a bookseller and paper merchant, working out of multiple cities throughout his career, including New York, Richmond, Virginia, and Washington D.C. Bartow began his bookselling career in 1815 in New York under the firm name of Robert & William A. Bartow (1815-1820) and as R. & W. & G. Bartow (1823-1824.) He also sold in Virginia under the name of Wm. A. Bartow & Co (1820-1822.) In 1825, Bartow partnered with John Brannan in Washington D.C., working together as Bartow & Brannan. Bartow later worked as a paper merchant in New York (William A. & George A. Bartow, 1833-1836) before retiring as a farmer in Fishkill, N.Y. John Brannan (1778?-1829) also had rich bookselling career, beginning in 1806 in New York under the firm name of Brisban & Brannan. Brannan later conducted business in Savannah, GA, Philadelphia, and Washington D.C. Brannan's partnership with Bartow began in 1825, but ceased in 1828 because of his poor health. Brannan later died on February 9, 1829.

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William Bolles Account Book, 1845-47

William Bolles (1800-1883) was a publisher, printer, and bookseller in New London, Conn. He was also a Rogerene (a religious sect influenced by Quakerism) and a radical abolitionist. This collection is one volume of Bolles's day book from 1845-1847. During this time Bolles printed and sold An Explanatory and Phonographic Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language.

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Book Trades Collection, 1726-1939

The Book Trades Collection, 1726-1939, highlights the history of over two centuries of American printing, publishing, and bookselling. There is also material relating to bookbinding, public and private libraries, and contemporary politics. Included are receipts and accounts, inventories and catalogues of almanacs, school books, and libraries, petitions concerning duties on items relevant to the printer's trade, library subscription lists, apprenticeship agreements, deeds of sale of printing establishments, and a large amount of correspondence concerning the operation of various printing and publishing enterprises. This collection is accompanied by individual pieces including: John A. Clark Contract, 1841; Isaac Israel Hayes Correspondence, 1867; William Garretson Correspondence, 1881; and Dustin, Gilman & Co. Subscription Papers, 1877

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Boston Mechanical Apprentices Library Association Semi-annual Report, 1846

This is a manuscript report, September 1, 1846, delivered by James W. M. Yerrington ( -1893) before the Boston Mechanical Apprentices Library Association. Yerrington, a Boston printer and reporter, was a member and officer of this organization for many years. This report gives an account of the financial affairs of the association and discusses internal problems. There is mention of the difficulty in publishing the first volume of "The Mechanic Apprentice". Also discussed is the embezzlement of funds by a former treasurer. A good part of this report pertains to the organization's library, librarians, and books in regard to the necessity of reform. It notes the poor order of the library itself with missing and stolen books, with particular attention to reforming the library's catalogue. This report gives an interesting insight into the inner workings of a social library of the mid-nineteenth century.

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Boynton and Marshall Company Account Book, 1850-1852

Otis Boynton (1798- ) was a bookbinder in Framingham, Mass., beginning in 1822 and was joined by John J. Marshall (1800- ) in 1833. Together they established a bookbindery, book, and stationery shop in Framingham that remained in business until 1864. Marshall also prepared penmanship books that were printed in 1837 and 1840. The company's account book was kept by John J. Marshall between May 13, 1850 and June 23, 1852. The entries indicate a large volume of business, including the sale of school books (especially to the town of Framingham), novels, religious works, dictionaries, almanacs, and other works. The company also sold paper, pencils, ink, writing and drawing books, envelopes, greeting cards, puzzles, and sealing wax. Several customers paid in goods or services. Boynton and Marshall also bound thousands of copies of Uncle Tom's Cabin and other books for various printers and publishers, e.g., John P. Jewett Company (which published Uncle Tom's Cabin in book form in 1852), Jenks Palmer and Company, and Kidder and Cheever. At the end of the volume is a list of Marshall's personal expenses and a description of binding work to be done.

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J.W.S. Browne & Co. Account Book, 1844-1846

J.W.S. Browne was the son of Samuel J. Browne, a printer who published the Liberty Hall newspaper in Cincinnati and later the Cincinnati Gazette. J.W.S. Browne and his brother-in-law L.S. Curtiss began publication of the Weekly Commercial in 1843. This account book contains a variety of records, including rents collected, the purchase of merchandise, and expenditure for labor. The volume includes a detailed record of Samuel J. Browne's purchase of a printing press, types, and other apparatus from James Graham in 1844.

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Boston Booksellers Records, 1640-1860

This collection of four volumes contains records of the Boston Association of Booksellers, sketches of Boston booksellers, and a brief history of bookselling in Boston. Octavo volumes one and two contain the records of the Boston Association of Booksellers from its founding in 1801 (as Association of the Boston Booksellers, Oct. 30, 1801-Dec. 1, 1802, and as Association of Boston Booksellers, Dec. 1, 1802-Jan. 27, 1803) to its dissolution in 1820. Both volumes are indexed and include minutes of meetings, regulations, attendance records, and other information. Octavo volume three consists of sketches of Boston booksellers for the period 1650 to 1860 compiled by Melvin Lord (1791-1876). The volume also contains a brief history of bookselling in Boston and an index to the sketches. Octavo volume four, compiled by Samuel Gardner Drake (1798-1875) consists of sketches, news clippings, and notes of Boston printers, booksellers, and publishers for the period 1640 to 1800.

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Steuben Butler Correspondence, 1807-1831; 1850

Steuben Butler (1789-1881) was born in Wilkes-Barre, Pa., the son of Zebulon and Phebe Haight Butler. After serving his apprenticeship with Charles Miner (1780-1865), he began publishing in 1809 the Luzerne County Federalist in Wilkes-Barre. He soon established a partnership with Sidney Tracy (1781- ) and later with Asher Miner (1778-1841) in 1811 and Eliphalet B. Worthington (1797-1871) in 1819. Butler published the Gleaner, The Literary Visitor, and the Advertiser, all in Wilkes-Barre. He was also a bookseller, principally between 1842 and 1867. This collection contains letters, 1807-1831; 1850, written to Steuben Butler by printers and paper-makers concerning sales of presses, platings, and paper, as well as employment arrangements. There are letters from Asher Miner and Eliphalet B. Worthington, the latter including details on printing conditions in Philadelphia and the wage dispute between journeymen and master printers. Mathew Carey (1760-1839) wrote to Butler regarding the buying of books, and Samuel Eckstein ( - ), a Philadelphia paper-maker, included prices of his paper and a printed list of available varieties. Several letters detail costs of printing, wages of workmen, prices and varieties of presses and type, and advertising costs. A few letters were written inside printed prospectuses, such as that of Eliakim Littell (1797-1870), who commented on the costs of subscriptions and paper.

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Carey, Mathew Papers, 1760-1839

Mathew C. Carey (1760-1839) was a publisher, economist, and humanitarian. He was born in Dublin, Ireland, and came to America in 1784, after involvement in Irish revolutionary activity. He took up his trade as a printer, publishing the Pennsylvania Herald and the periodical, The American Museum. His book publishing ventures prospered and his firm was a leader in American printing and publishing in the period 1795-1835. He was an active proponent of the protective tariff, as well as an ardent champion of oppressed minorities in Europe, especially after his retirement from business in 1821. His business was thereafter conducted by his son, Henry C. Carey (1793-1879). This collection consists principally of forty-one volumes of receipts, bills, memoranda, invoices, bills of lading, and other records of Carey's publishing business, and its successors, Carey, Lea, and Carey, and Lea and Blanchard.

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David Chambers Papers, 1795-1822; 1851-1863; 1905

David Chambers (1780-1864) was a United States Representative from Ohio, a newspaper publisher, an Ohio State printer, volunteer aide-de-camp to General Lewis Cass in the War of 1812, mayor of Zanesville, Ohio, and a member of the Ohio State Senate. He was educated by his father, Joseph Gaston Chambers ( -1829), a liberal thinker and inventor. As an adolescent, Chambers served as a confidential express rider for President Washington during the 1794 Whisky Insurrection. He learned the art of printing as an apprentice to Benjamin Franklin Bache (1769-1798), a noted Philadelphia printer and publisher. The collection consists primarily of correspondence to and from Chambers. As a young man he exchanged with his father opinions and information about political and personal events. A September 14, 1796, letter from Benjamin Franklin Bache informed Joseph Chambers of his son's disposition and progress as a printer's apprentice. In addition, there is an 1851 letter to Chambers' grandson, a note to Salmon P. Chase requesting employment for his grandson, an undated biographical sketch of Chambers, a copy of his 1862 will, and miscellaneous newspaper clippings.

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David Clapp Journal, 1820-1824

David Clapp, Jr. (1806-1893) was a resident of Dorchester, Mass., until 1822 when he was apprenticed to John Cotton, a Boston printer. Clapp purchased that establishment in 1834 and devoted himself to general book and job printing and publishing. Among the items issued from his press were the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal and the New England Historical and Genealogical Register. Clapp's journal, May 1820-June 1824, commences with his summer apprenticeship to James White of Boston and contains brief entries concerning the weather, his wages, daily childhood activities (e.g., sleighing and visits to a zoo), his studies in Dorchester during the winter months, and his eventual apprenticeship to John Cotton, with references to his responsibilities with that firm. The entries also refer to Boston election days, holidays, other city activities, and the extensive damage done by a hurricane in 1821. Included are fragments from Clapp's studies, such as an Essay on Disappointment and an account of the Battle of Marathon.

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Solomon Clark Account Book, 1820-1826

Solomon Clark (1759-1826), of Bennington, Vt., was evidently a partner of his son, Darius Clark (1789-1873), printer, publisher, and bookseller. The latter published the Vermont Gazette from 1816 to 1827. Solomon Clark was married to Sarah Turner Clark (1758-1831) in 1784. Their son's wife was Susan Haswell (1795- ), daugher of Anthony Haswell (1756-1816). Solomon Clark's account book, 1820-1826, contains an index and the debits and credits of various customers, many of whom paid in goods rather than cash. The entries refer to the sale of almanacs, newspapers, blank record books, quires of paper, books (spelling, reading, and arithmetic books, as well as specific titles, are listed), and binding work. Occasional reference is made to items carried over to "new book" or "Darius' book." Clark's customers included Moses Fay and Charles Doolittle.

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William Cobbett Account Book, 1796-1800

William Cobbett (1763-1835) was an English journalist and publicist. His pseudonym was Peter Porcupine. In 1792-1800 and again in 1817-1819, Cobbett was a political refugee in the United States. While a refugee, in 1796, he opened a bookshop in Philadelphia. It is for this bookshop that this ledger was kept until 1800. In this indexed volume Cobbett recorded business dealing with other book dealers and customers. Itemized accounts supply the titles and prices of books sold and printing supplies purchased.

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Zacheus Cole Papers, 1826-1843

Zacheus Cole (1791-1882), the son of John and Polly (Bemis) Cole, was born in Dummerston, Vt., on 28 March 1791. In 1815 Zacheus Cole married Annis Harlow Marvin (1785-1877) of Westminster, Vt., the widow of Giles Marvin (1781-2-1814); the Coles subsequently had five children. Zacheus Cole died 12 October 1882. This collection contains records of Zacheus Cole's business activities in Westminster between 1826 and 1843. The folio volume, labeled "Day Book C," is actually a ledger containing accounts with more than three hundred individuals and companies. An extremely wide range of business is recorded, but Cole's specialty seems to have been metal work, and there are accounts for mending or making kettles, tools, cutlery, jewelry, umbrellas, clocks, guns, and many other items. He also plated various items such as nuts and knobs. A significant part of Cole's trade was related to funerals. There are a number of accounts for "trimmings" and "letters" for coffins, as well as grave digging and attending funerals.

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D. C. Colesworthy Diary, 1874

Daniel Clement Colesworthy (1810-1893) was a printer, bookseller and poet from Portland, ME. Colesworthy was the son of Daniel Pecker and Anna (Collins) Colesworthy. He married Mary Jane Richardson (1812-1874) and the couple had eight children: Daniel Clement, Mary Jane, Charles Jenkins, Ellen Maria, George Edward, Harriet Ann, Alice Elizabeth and William Gibson. Colesworthy began his printing career at the age of 14, when he served as an apprentice to Arthur Shirley, printer of the Christian Mirror. He soon opened his own printing shop and began printing and editing his first publication the juvenile periodical the Sabbath School Instructor (later known as the Moral Reformer and then the Journal of Reform). In 1840 he began publication of the Youth's Monitor, which ran for two years. In 1841 Colesworthy began his literary paper, the Portland Tribune, which ran for four years until he sold his interest to John Edwards. Edwards, publisher of the Portland Bulletin, merged the two papers and began publishing the Tribune and Bulletin. After selling his paper, Colesworthy moved into the bookselling business, opening a bookstore on Exchange St. in Portland. In 1850 he moved to Boston, where he also opened and ran a book store. At the time of his death, he was the oldest bookseller in Boston. In addition to the book and printing business, Colesworthy was also a writer and poet. He contributed often to literary and religious newspapers, and published multiple titles, including "The Old Bureau and Other Tales", "Sabbath School Hymns", "A Group of Children", "A Day in the Woods", "School is Out", and "John Tileston's School". This volume contains diary entries for the year 1874 in which Colesworthy wrote and entry for every day of the year.

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Jeremiah Condy Account Book, 1759-1770

Jeremiah Condy (1708-1768), bookseller, publisher, and Baptist minister, was the son of Boston schoolmaster Jeremiah Condy and Susanna Hiller Condy. He attended Harvard first as a Hollis Fellow, later as a Hopkins Fellow (B.A., 1726; M.A., 1733). He served as Harvard Librarian, 1729-1730, before being called briefly to the pulpit of the strife-ridden First Baptist Church of Newport, R.I. Perhaps as early as 1754, he started a bookselling business which by 1763 had become one of the most active such trades in New England. He stocked mostly imported books on law, medicine, and mathematics, as well as English magazines and classics. The shop also functioned as a lending library and carried a line of dry goods. The Condy account book spans the period of April 16, 1759, to November 19, 1770, and illuminates Condy's bookselling activities. This book traces his dealings with a variety of Massachusetts political figures including Robert Treat Paine, many Harvard College students, James Otis, Josiah Quincy, Andrew Oliver, Joseph Hawley, Timothy Paine, Peter Oliver, Roger Sherman, Joseph Warren, Thomas Hutchinson, Samuel Adams, Francis Bernard, John Cushing, printers Thomas and John Fleet, Benjamin West.

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Copeland and Day Correspondence, 1880-1900

The publishing firm, Copeland & Day, was established by two young men, Herbert Copeland ( -1923) and Frederick Holland Day (1864-1933) in 1892 or 1893 to issue books of literary merit "as they should be manufactured in times when paper, type, and binding have reached almost perfection." Most of their publications were in the field of general literature, and of the 96 books issued by the firm, 54 were volumes of poetry, 23 volumes of fiction, and 11 volumes of essays. Almost all of this correspondence consists of letters from writers, poets, illustrators, book dealers, publishers, and bookbinders to the firm.

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Scanned images available here

 

Morris Cotton Account Books, 1852-1860

Morris Cotton (1805-1871), Boston publisher and bookseller, appears to have been the son of John Cotton (1750-1820) and Hannah Lane (1768-1837), both of southeastern New Hampshire. During part of his life, Morris Cotton was a farmer in Gilford, N.H. Cotton first appeared in Boston in 1851. In January 1852, he replaced George W. Light (1809-1868) as publisher of the Common School Journal, which had been begun in 1838 by Horace Mann (1796-1859). William Bentley Fowle (1795-1865), who published the journal from 1842 to 1849, replaced Mann as its editor in 1848. Cotton published the journal for Fowle until its failure in December 1852. In addition to his activities with this periodical, Cotton published and sold books and pamphlets which were mostly of an educational nature. These two volumes are the daybook and ledger for Cotton's modest publishing and bookselling business. They contain records for the period from January 1, 1852 to March 19, 1860.

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Jacob P. Cushing Canvassing Book, 1866

This canvassing notebook was kept by agent Jacob P. Cushing, who sold prints published by W.J. Holland of Springfield. Cushing recorded the names and addresses of individuals who purchased the Samuel Sartain mezzotint "Bethlehem" (1866). Cushing also recorded the purchase of one copy of the Emily Sartain mezzotint "Raising of Jairus' Daughter." An advertising description of "Bethlehem" along with Cushing's signature is tipped in.

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Dodd, Mead & Company Business Records, 1836-1939

These are the papers of the publishing house in which Moses Woodruff Dodd (1813-1899) and his son Frank Howard Dodd (1844-1916) were involved. Moses Dodd was born in Bloomfield, N.J. and graduated from Princeton in 1837. Afterwards he studied in preparation for the Presbyterian ministry, but poor eyesight caused him to quit. In 1839 Moses Dodd bought an interest in the publishing house of John S. Taylor, but in 1840, when it became clear that the company was in financial difficulty, Dodd started his own bookselling and publishing business. Many of the books Dodd published reflected his own interests in religious and moral subjects. Moses Dodd's son Frank joined the company in 1859 and he became increasingly involved in its operation. When Moses Dodd retired on January 1, 1870, Frank Howard Dodd went into partnership with Moses's nephew Edward S. Mead (1845-1894). The company published an increasing variety of material including children's books and fiction, and had particular commercial successes with works by Martha Finley (1828-1909) and Edward P. Roe (1838-1888). The collection consists chiefly of copyright certificates, contracts, and memoranda of agreement, although it also includes a small amount of business correspondence. Most of the material is from the period between 1839 and 1900.

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Charles Ellms Business Papers, 1833-1851

Charles Ellms (fl. 1830) was a Boston stationer who gave up trade and undertook the compiling of almanacs and books with popular titles. His published works include: _The Comic Almanac for 1835_ (Boston, [1834]); _The Pirates Own Book_ ... (1836; reprinted, Salem, 1924); _Robinson Crusoe's Own Book_ ... (Boston, 1842); _Shipwrecks and Disasters at Sea_ ...(Boston, 1836); and _The Tragedy of the Seas_ ...(New York, 1841). These two volumes include the business records of Ellms from 1833 to 1851. The octavo volume includes copies of business letters written by Ellms from 1833 to 1834 to publishers and booksellers in different cities in regard to his books and almanacs. Ellms includes detailed descriptions of the contents of his books

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John M. Ensminger Business Papers, 1846-1886

John Michael Ensminger (1825-1899) was a printer and newspaper publisher from Manheim, Pennsylvania. He married Elizabeth Baker, and the couple had one child, Elizabeth. Ensminger began his printing career as an apprentice in a Lancaster printing office and in 1838 opened his own printing business. On Friday, September 17, 1841, Ensminger issued the first newspaper printed in Manheim, Penn., The Sun. The Sun was a single sheet, two-column newspaper, and Ensminger charged a subscription fee of fifty cents a year. He continued in the newspaper business, renaming his paper The Weekly Planet and Rapho Banner in 1846. In 1849, Ensminger went into business with D. Bard Rock, and the two changed the name of the paper yet again, to The Manheim Whig Sentinel and Lancaster County Advertiser. Rock briefly took over the business entirely until 1850, until Ensminger bought back the business, including Rock's interest, in 1852. Ensminger continued to publish the Sentinel until his death in 1899. After Ensminger's death, printing and editing of the newspaper passed through many different hands until the paper ceased publication in 1969.

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Philip Richard Fendall Papers, 1819-1860

Philip Ricard Fendall (1794-1868) was born in Alexandria, Va. He graduated from Princeton in 1815, received an A.M. degree there in 1818, and was admitted to the bar in 1820. In 1830, he became part owner and editor of the National Journal, which replaced the National Intelligencer as the semi-official publication for the administration of John Quincy Adams. Fendall later became District Attorney for Washington, D.C. from 1841 to 1845 and from 1849 to 1853. His published works include: An Argument on the Powers, Duties and Conduct of the Hon. John C. Calhoun...(Washington, 1827); A Discourse on the Good and Evil of Political Parties ...(Washington, 1857); Catalogue of the...Library of the Late Philip R. Kendall (Washington, 1869); and others.

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John Fenno Papers, 1779-1800

John Fenno (1751-1798) was a Federalist newspaper editor and founder of the Gazette of the United States. Fenno was born in Boston, Massachusetts, son of Ephraim Fenno and Mary Chapman. Fenno married Mary Curtiss in 1777, and the couple had one child, John Ward Fenno. Fenno served as Washington's second in command with the rank of lieutenant general during the war. After the war, Fenno began a career as an importer but quickly failed through unwise business decisions. In 1789 Fenno moved from Boston to New York City where he established his semi-weekly newspaper, the Gazette of the United States. Thanks to his Gazette, Fenno found himself a player in the newspaper wars of the early republic. Backed by Alexander Hamilton, the Gazette editorialized pro-Constitution and supported Washington in his new position as President. Hamilton often contributed to the paper under pseudonyms and even gave Fenno a loan for $2000 when the Gazette was struggling financially. Fenno's main newspaper rival was Thomas Jefferson backed Benjamin Franklin Bache, editor of the Republican General Advisor. When the nation's capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, Fenno moved as well. The Gazette saw its highest circulation figures in Philadelphia in 1791 with 1400 copies. In 1798 Fenno fell victim to the yellow fever epidemic. His son, John Ward Fenno, took over the Gazette for two years before selling it in 1800. The Gazette then ran until 1818.

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Nathan Lanesford Foster Papers, 1804-1882

Nathan Lanesford Foster (1787-1860), poet and itinerant book agent, was the son of Rev. Joel Foster (1755-1812) and Priscilla (Foster) Foster (1756-1803). He was born on 8 December 1787 in East Sudbury, now Wayland, Mass. In 1805 he moved to Brattleboro, Vt., to read law with his brother-in-law, Samuel Elliot (1777-1845). Following the premature death of his sister, Fanny Foster Elliot (1783-1806), he continued his legal studies in Woodstock, Conn. After a brief period of teaching school in Wethersfield, Conn., he moved in 1809 to East Haddam, Conn., where he remained for the next thirty years. In East Haddam he practiced law, farmed, taught school, wrote poetry, was active in town government and in the Episcopal Church, and possibly for a time kept a tavern. His last move was to Philadelphia in 1840; he died there on 9 November 1860. This collection consists of eighty-three diaries of Nathan Lanesford Foster for the period 1804 to 1860 that chronicles the life of a man who loved words.

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Perry Forrester Printing Office Account Book, 1832-1837

The Perry Forrester was the first newspaper for Perry County and was founded in 1820 by Alexander Magge (1791-1845). It was moved from Landisburg to Bloomfield in 1829, and in 1832, Magee sold it to David A. Reed ( -1844). This account book, with thirteen loose receipts, has entries that include the names of its 494 subscribers, amounts paid for subscriptions, as well as various types of printing jobs executed by publisher David A. Reed ( -1844) including advertisements, bonds, blanks, bills of lading, deeds, labels, tickets, cards, and handbills. Credit accounts were generally cash but included wood and coal for the office, potatoes, meats, honey, and grain. The front pastedown includes a thirteen line statement, witnessed by printer Nimrod Eby, in Reed's hand to transfer all books and accounts and the Perry Forrester Printing Office to the hands of his attorney Benjamin McIntyre. A six page account of monies received from various subscribers in the hand of attorney Robert Kelly together with a detailed list paid to creditors and legal costs indicates that David A. Reed suffered serious economic setbacks as publisher and owner of the paper. A couple of entries to note, on pages 80 and 88, say that Reed left Bloomfield in 1836, and before that was taking recurring payments for advertisements while in the country.

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Funk Family Correspondence, 1833-1860.

Joseph Funk resided in Singers Glen, near Harrisonburg, Virginia. He was a land owner and farmer, schoolmaster, translator of religious works, the author and publisher of music books and several controversial pamphlets, head of a printing, publishing and bookbinding firm, and a famous itinerant teacher of vocal music. He is credited with having established the first Mennonite printing press in the United States, in 1847. Members of the Funk family of Rockingham County, Virginia, represented in this collection are Joseph Funk (1777-1862) and his sons, Joseph (1816- ), David (1818-1870), Samuel (1819- ), John (1822- ), Timothy (1824-1909), Solomon (1825-1880), and Benjamin (1829- ). Much of the correspondence concerns business arrangements for the printing and distribution of Joseph Funk's book, A Compilation of Genuine Church Music. Funk, often teaching music away from home, wrote to his sons extensively describing his travels, the schools he taught in, and particularly discussing printing matters. His son Timothy worked in their publishing firm (Joseph Funk and Sons) as a bookbinder, while Solomon, assisted by Benjamin, was the printer.

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G. & C. Merriam (Firm) Business Records, 1818-1860

G. & C. Merriam Company, printers, booksellers, and publishers in Springfield, Mass., was established in 1831 by brothers George (1803-1880) and Charles (1806-1887) Merriam. The Merriam family, specifically their father, Dan (1771-1823) and his brother, Ebenezer (1777-1858) had begun printing and publishing in West Brookfield, Mass., in 1798 under the name E. Merriam and Company. After Dan's death in 1823, the name of the firm was changed to E. and G[eorge]. Merriam of West Brookfield. George's brother, Charles, joined him in the move to Springfield in 1831. Their brother, Homer (1813- ), became a partner in 1856, although the name of the firm remained unchanged. The company specialized in school books, law books, Bibles, and dictionaries. In 1843 they bought the copyright for Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, revised it, and promoted it in large quantities. The success of this venture brought G. & C. Merriam to the public's attention and their business expanded considerably. This collection consists of business correspondence and account books. Much of the business correspondence is in the form of notes written on printed price lists, and book announcements from various publishers including such firms as Lea, Carey, and Blanchard, the American Sunday School Union, and Harper & Brothers.

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William Harrison Gilmore Account Books, 1846-1861

William Harrison Gilmore (1823-1878) was born in Warner, N.H., one of seven children of David ( -1852) and Martha Ward Gilmore ( - ). The family moved to Henniker, N.H., when William was a youth. He learned the printing trade in the office of the Nashua Gazette, and by October, 1845 he was listed on the paper's masthead as its printer. In March, 1847, Gilmore and Israel P. Chase (1827-1890) purchased the Manchester, N.H. Saturday Messenger from J. E. Davis, Jr. and E. D. Davis. Gilmore and Chase continued the Saturday Messenger until 1849, when Gilmore entered into a partnership with John H. Goodale (1816-1890) to publish the Manchester Democrat, with Goodale as editor. The partnership was dissolved in 1851, and Goodale continued the Democrat, while Gilmore began to produce another weekly newspaper called the Manchester Union Democrat. James M. Campbell (1817-1883) joined Gilmore as a partner in 1852, and Campbell continued to conduct the paper after Gilmore's departure in 1855. Starting in 1852, Campbell and Gilmore also published the Manchester Daily Union. Between about 1856 and 1860, Gilmore's partner was Warren Martin ( - ). Starting in 1858, Gilmore and Martin published a newspaper called The New Hampshire Journal of Agriculture. Gilmore sold the paper to Francis B. Eaton in 1861. Afterwards, he moved to Henniker, N.H. and operated the printing office of the Concord, N.H. newspaper The People. Gilmore married twice and died in 1878. This collection contains accounts for Gilmore's activities as a printer between 1847 and 1861. Included are accounts for newspapers and job printing work, advertising, and subscriptions.

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Sidney Hayden Papers, 1846-1898

Sidney Hayden (1813-1890) was an active Mason and bookseller. Born in Colesbrook, Conn., he remained in that area until he married Florilla E. Miller (1814-c. 1869) of Torringford, Conn., on March 23, 1836. On March 20, 1840, Hayden, his wife, and their son Julius (1838- ) moved to Athens, Pa. There he and his wife had five more children: Algernon Sidney (1843-1843), Albert (1844- ), Charles (1846- ), Ruth (1848- ), and Sidney (1857- ). He owned and operated a farm during the 1840s and 1850s in order to support his young family. As a member and eventual master, 1863, of the Rural Amity Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, No. 70, Hayden was very involved in lodge affairs, attending Grand Lodge encampments and collecting Masonic literature. He contributed a sketch to a work entitled Leaflets of Masonic Biography or Sketches of Eminent Free Masons, 1862, which was edited and published by Cornelius Moore (1806- ), Hayden's close friend and business associate. Soon after this book was published, Hayden began the research for his own work entitled, George Washington and his Masonic Compeers, 1866. Throughout the 1860s and 1870s, Hayden travelled through the Mid-Atlantic states as a dealer for both the Leaflets and his own Compeers. His trips took him through Ohio, Michigan, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania where he introduced his Masonic works at various lodge meetings. During the later years of his life, Sidney Hayden retired to his farm in Athens, which was then still managed by Bert, where he died on April 4, 1890. This collection consists solely of correspondence, which has been arranged chronologically within two series: business letters and family letters.

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Daniel Collamore Heath Correspondence, 1877-1899

Daniel Collamore Heath (1843-1908), son of Daniel and Mila Ann Record Heath, was born in Salem, Me. In 1868, he graduated from Amherst College. From 1868 to 1870, he was Principal of Peters High School in Southboro, Mass. He attended the Bangor Theological Seminary from 1870 to 1871 and received a M.A. from Amherst College in 1871. He was licensed to preach on May 30, 1871. From 1872 to 1873, Heath was Superintendent of Schools at Farmington, Me. He was representative of Ginn Brothers, booksellers and publishers, in New York City from 1873 to 1875. He was partner in the publishing firm of Ginn and Heath in Boston from 1876 to 1886. In 1886, Heath established in Boston the publishing house of D.C. Heath and Company, which he headed until 1908. He died in Newtonville, Mass.

This collection of correspondence addressed to D. C. Heath falls roughly into three classes: 1. letters referring to the publishing of text books on educational subjects; 2. personal letters from friends; 3. letters from prominent people invited by Heath to address meetings of the Amherst Alumni Association, the 20th Century Club, the Pine Tree State Club, and other similar groups.

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Stan. V. Henkels (Firm) Account Books, 1913-1937

Stanislaus Vincent Henkels (1854-1926) was a Philadelphia, Pa., auctioneer, bookseller, cataloguer, and a leading authority on autographs, rare books, prints, and all materials relating to George Washington 91732-1799). This collection consists of sixteen account books of the auction sales, 1913-1937, of Stan V. Henkels and Stan V. Henkels, Jr. (who evidently took over the business in October, 1931), a shipping book, 1923-1935, and a billing book, 1924-1937.

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Hoffman & White Daybook, 1836-1836

The printing firm of Hoffman & White was located in Albany, New York. Benjamin Hoffman and Andrew White were the proprietors of the Albany Evening Journal, which they conducted along with Thurlow Reed. This daybook reflects a year's work of in-house and job bookbinding work performed. Arranged chronologically and beginning in March of 1836, the book includes "Cutting alphabet", "name on one book", and "Bind 100 Davies Arithmetic", as well as each transaction's cost. In addition to being an account book, this volume also contains manuscripts for two unpublished novellas by Jessie Rivington. The first is titled "Jessie or the Convent in Italy", the second "The effects of Pride or, Florence and Marion".

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Davis Lawler James Scrapbook, 1838-1933

Davis Lawler James (1848-1933) was the son of Uriah Pierson James and successor to the family business. U.P. (Uriah Pierson) James (1811-1889) was the founder of one of the nation's pioneering book retailing businesses and a major figure in the publishing and bookselling industries of Cincinnati, Ohio, during the nineteenth century; Cincinnati being one of the largest manufacturers of books at that time. In partnership with his brother, J. A. (Joseph Allen) James (1807-1882), and others, U.P. James built an extensive business once referred to as "the Harper's of the West." This scrapbook, which was most likely compiled by Davis L. James, is kept in a salesman's sample of an early twentieth century book entitled, "What Really Happened at Paris ... Edited by Edward Mandell House and Charles Seymour." A paper spine label reads "Book Trade/James Book Store/Cincinnati Literary Sundries." The materials date from the 1840s to the early 1930 and amount to a history of the family business and of the publishing industry in Cincinnati during that time.

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Thomas Kimber Business Papers, 1806

These business notes, interleaved in an 1806 almanac, were produced by Thomas Kimber (1787-1864), of the Philadelphia firm, Kimber, Conrad & Company, which published the almanac. This firm was owned by booksellers Emmor Kimber (1775-1850), a prominent Quaker leader and minster, and Solomon White Conrad (1779-1831). Thomas Kimber later owned his own firms, Kimber & Richardson, 1811-1815, and Kimber and Sharpless, 1815-1853. These notes include the terms of sale for Thomas Clarkson's A Portraiture of Quakerism...(N.Y., 1806), lists of books with prices, lists of books to be exchanged with other firms, and other matters.

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Lee and Shepard Business Records, 1860s-1906

The Boston publishing firm Lee & Shepard was established in 1861 by William Lee (1826-1906) and Charles Augustus Billings Shepard (1829-1889). The firm published much well known general literature but was especially noted for its juvenile literature and school books. This collection of correspondence, book orders, and receipts encompasses the firm's business from the 1860s until its incorporation with the Boston publishing house of Lothrop & Company in 1906. Letters from Lee & Shepard's most important authors were evidently removed from this collection prior to its purchase by Charles H. Taylor, but the remaining correspondence includes letters from published authors and from people submitting unsolicited manuscripts. In addition to this correspondence, there are book orders from libraries and literary institutions, book orders from individuals, and business correspondence from book dealers and other publishers.

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Peter Leibert Account Book, 1793-1812

Peter Leibert (1727-1812) was a Germantown, Pa., printer. A wealthy Baptist Dunker, Leibert served as an officer in a Germantown fire company and was one of the managers chosen to erect the Concord school house in 1775. Leibert's daughter Mary married Michael Billmeyer, his partner from 1785 to 1787, with whom he published the bi-weekly newspaper Germantauner Zeitung from February 6, 1785, to August 7, 1787. Leibert and Billmeyer also published the German language edition of the proceedings of the Pennsylvania Assembly. Leibert printed almanacs, government documents, children's books, and other secular texts, but he was primarily a publisher of religious works, mostly, but not exclusively, in German. The account book is a meticulous record of Leibert's transactions including sales, rent and tax payments, and domestic purchases.

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Edward Livermore Letter Books, 1849-1852

Edward Livermore (1821- ) was a publisher of farming, carpentry, and related books, and owner of a bookstore located at 184 Main Street, Worcester, Mass., from 1846 to 1854. Among Livermore's publications are The Farmer's Handbook (1851) and Rural Architect (1851). These letterbooks of approximately eighty pages each, contain business letters dealing with many aspects of bookselling and publishing. Included are the filling of book orders for booksellers in a variety of northern cities, descriptions of upcoming publications and projected costs, legal papers authorizing sales agents, promissory notes, detailed orders for decorative bindings and illustrations, and accounts.

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Bela Marsh Papers, 1830-1865

Bela Marsh (1797-1869) was a Boston bookseller and stationer from about 1821 until about 1868, with a brief period (c. 1841-1843) as a bookbinder. He was in business alone from 1821-1825 and from 1844 to the end of his career. His partners were Nahum Capen, 1826-1829; Capen and Gardner P. Lyon, 1830-1839; Capen, Lyon, and T. H. Webb, 1839-1841; and as a bookbinder, George W. Williams. In February 1827 Marsh married Mary Beal, daughter of Bela Beal, in Boston. Late in his career Marsh specialized in the publication of "Spiritual and Reform Books." The collection consists of an undated volume and 28 manuscripts. The volume, "Receipts for Marbling & Staining the sides of Books," contains recipes and directions for making colored pigments and for producing different designs, along with other recipes for materials needed for Marsh's trade. The loose manuscripts include twenty-three copyright certificates, 1841-1862; and five miscellaneous business and family receipts and manuscripts

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M'Carty & Davis Papers, 1816-1842

M'Carty & Davis were early Philadelphia booksellers and publishers. The firm, owned by William M'Carty (1788?-1861) and Thomas Davis (1790?-1851), was a successor to Johnson & Warner, who were noted for publishing children's books. Jacob Johnson (1771?-1819) and Benjamin Warner (1786-1821) sold their firm in 1815 to M'Carty and Davis. In 1831, Moses Polock (1817-1903) was employed by M'Carty & Davis as a clerk. Twenty years later Polock acquired the business and upon his death the firm descended to Polock's nephew, Abraham Simon Wolf Rosenbach (1876-1952). This collection consists of the business papers of M'Carty & Davis, with most of the items being correspondence to M'Carty & Davis from booksellers, bookbinders, printers, paper manufacturers, engravers, shipping firms, and customers.

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McLoughlin Bros. Collection, 1858-1920

McLoughlin Bros., Inc., was a New York publishing firm that pioneered the systematic use of color printing technologies in children's books, particularly between 1858 and 1920. The firm's publications served to popularize illustrators including Thomas Nast, William Mornberger, Justin H. Howard, Palmer Cox, and Ida Waugh. The artistic and commercial roots of the McLoughlin firm were first developed by John McLoughlin, Jr. (1827-1905), who as a teenager learned wood engraving and printing while working for Elton & Co., a New York firm formed by his father John McLoughlin, Sr. and engraver/printer Robert H. Elton. Elton Co. (active 1840-1851) printed and issued toy books, comic almanacs, and valentines. Between 1850 and 1851, John McLough1in, Sr., and Robert H. Elton retired, giving John Jr. control of the business. He started to publish picture books under his own name and soon acquired the printing blocks of Edward Dunigan, a New York picture book publisher and former employee of Robert H. Elton.

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William Merriam Account Book, 1831-1833

William Merriam (1809?- ) was a bookbinder from West Brookfield, Mass. This account book contains his records. It lists labor time and numerous books on which Merriam worked.

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James Munroe and Company Correspondence, 1833-1866

James Munroe and Company, publishers and booksellers, were located at 134 Washington Street in Boston and also in Cambridge, Mass., during the middle part of the nineteenth century. The head of the company was James Munroe (1808-1861), who was born in Lexington, Mass., the son of James Munroe (1775-1848) and Margaret Watson Munroe. In 1834 he married Sarah Russell Mason Fiske (1808- ). They had two daughters. Among the authors who wrote to the company seeking publication of their works were: George Goldthwait Ingersoll (1796-1863); David Fosdick, Jr. (1813-1892); Eliza Jane Cate (1812-1884); Henry Peterson (1818-1891), an abolitionist author; and George Osborne Stearns, a Worcester, Mass., temperance writer. Several poets also contacted Munroe concerning publication. These included Nathan Ames and William Edward Knowles. John Louis O'Sullivan (1813-1895) wrote to Munroe in 1844 on behalf of his friend, Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864), and his contract problems over the publication of Twice Told Tales. Several individuals sent orders for book lists or specific books, detailing the type of binding they wished to be used, e.g., Edmund Quincy Sewall (1828-1908) and William Silsbee. The company was also apparently involved in collecting dues for the Peace Society in 1847.

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Joel Munsell Papers, 1835-1922

Joel Munsell (1808-1880), printer and antiquarian, was born in Northfield, Mass., the son of Joel (1783-1865) and Cynthia Payne Munsell ( -1864). In 1825, at the age of seventeen, he was apprenticed to the Franklin Post and Christian Freeman in Greenfield, Mass. Later, he worked in a print shop in Albany, N.Y., where in 1827 he went into the newspaper business for himself. Munsell printed many newspapers (e.g., Albany Morning Express) and periodicals (e.g., New York State Mechanic) and edited several. He also published reference books in history and prepared a few compilations, including Outline of the History of Printing (1839) and Typographical Miscellany (1850), a limited edition. Munsell gathered a large personal collection of works on printing and a large collection of newspapers. He was a founder of the Albany Institute and a member of the American Antiquarian Society. This collection contains a variety of papers, 1835-1922, of Joel Munsell. The octavo volumes include Munsell's annotated copy of Typographical Miscellany, in which news clippings relating to printing history and various manuscripts have been pasted.

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G. W. Offley Papers, 1847-1879

Greensbury Washington Offley (1808-1896) was born in Queen Anne's County, Maryland to a freeman and former slave. In 1835, he moved north to Hartford, Connecticut and became a Methodist minister. Throughout his professional career, Offley devoted substantial time to raising development funds for the creation of African American Churches. In November 1847 he began soliciting donations throughout New England for the Colored Methodist Zion Society to create the Worcester Zion Church on Exchange Street. While in Worcester, in the early 1850s, he formed the Female Mutual Relief Society. Upon completion of the building in 1850, he returned to Hartford as pastor of the Belknap Street Church. Offley was politically active in the New England African American community, and performed missionary work among freedmen in the South. Offley moved to New Bedford, Massachusetts in 1867 and published God's Immutable Declaration of His Own Moral and Assumed Natural Image and Likeness in Man, 1875. Offley died on March 22, 1896, and was buried in the Oak Grove Cemetery in New Bedford.

He was married to Elizabeth Offley (1840- ) and had one adopted daughter, Adelaide Brown (1857-1927).

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Paper Mill Ledger, 1894

This ledger is from an unknown paper mill in 1894. The book itself was published A. E. Gould, a commercial stationer from New Haven, Connecticut. It was started in April 1894 and lists various types of paper or patterns being produced and the cost of tools to produce the paper. It also mentions costs for a bad roll of paper and gives an idea of how much money the mill may have lost from basic manufacturing mistakes. Next to each expense there are names of workers, last name and first initial. This ledger not only details expenses and material for manufacturing paper but also how much each individual was being paid for that labor.

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Paris and Woodstock Library Papers, 1845

The Paris and Woodstock Library, a social library in Maine, was formed in March, 1845. This is an interesting example of the rise of social library associations in the period before the arrival of the public library. The incorporators of Paris and Woodstock stated that the library's objectives were to be "Historical information, religious instruction, and the advancement of the laws of CHRIST." Membership cost 50 cents per share and was open to both men and women.

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James Hervey Pierrepont Booksellers' Accounts, 1812-1838

James Hervey Peirrepont (1768-1839) was born in Roxbury, Mass. He was a 1789 Harvard graduate, trained as a physician in Boston, and practiced in Portsmouth, N.H., from 1801 until his death. This collection consists of receipts and accounts for books that Pierrepont bought and sold primarily through Boston booksellers. Several documents from Joseph Lewis Cunningham (1784-1843), a Boston auctioneer and commission merchant, indicate the extent of Pierrepont's trading activity. Other booksellers and printers represented are: Carter and Hendee & Co., Cummings, Hilliard & Co., Harrison Gray, Hilliard, Gray & Co., James Munroe & Co., and Munroe and Francis Co. Portsmouth, London, New York City, and Philadelphia booksellers are also included in the collection. The majority of the books purchased by Pierrepont were medical texts. The records also reflect his scholarly and religious pursuits, including Greek and Roman classics, English literature, histories, and theological works.

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Benjamin Perley Poore Record Book, 1854-1855

Benjamin Perley Poore (1820-1887) was a newspaper correspondent, editor, and author who lived and worked mainly in Washington, D.C. He was born and raised on "Indian Hill Farm" near Newburyport, Mass., a member of a wealthy family. Following a brief stay at West Point, Poore chose to apprentice himself to a printer and eventually became one of the first newspaper correspondents in America, a position which he held for three decades. Stationed in Washington, D.C., he worked for the Boston Journal and a number of other newspapers, and made a name for himself as "Perley" the columnist. Poore also served as clerk of the Senate committee on printing public records, edited the Congressional Directory in 1869, and published a number of biographies of notable Americans. This volume, 1854-1855, was kept by Benjamin Perley Poore as a record of his plans to publish Archives of the Press, an illustrated history of the American press. The volume contains a printed prospectus, clippings from various newspapers promoting the publication, and a brief list of subscribers. There is also a page which contains a list of people to whom Poore sent a prospectus or a note of thanks for their assistance. There is also a loose page of blank receipts of the American Sentinel office in Washington, D.C., and a loose news clipping. Although Poore worked on the Archives of the Press for ten years, apparently it was never published.

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Charles Prentiss Correspondence, 1796-1820

This small collection of correspondence addressed to Charles Prentiss (1774-1820) is arranged alphabetically by writer and contains letters of such prominent Americans as John Adams, Robert Goodloe Harper, Washington Irving, and John Howard Payne. The focus of the correspondence is on Prentiss' activity as a printer, and includes information on publishing books, editing newspapers and magazines, and the printing business generally. Principal correspondents are William Eaton, John Elihu Hall, and Benjamin Russell.

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Prince Society (Boston, Mass.) Papers, 1863-1911

The Prince Society, so named in honor of Rev. Thomas Prince (1687-1758), was formed in Boston, Mass., in 1858. Its purpose was to publish rare books and manuscripts relative to American history. This collection of miscellaneous papers includes circular letters; correspondence; news clippings, including an obituary notice for Rev. Edmund Farwell Slafter (1816-1906) from the Boston Transcript; miscellaneous notes; and a picture of Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635).

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Freeman Richardson Canvassing Book, 1864

Freeman Richardson was a lithographer who had a drawing school at 19 Tremont Row, Boston, Massachusetts. This canvassing book records Richardson's efforts at selling his lithograph "Environs of Boston, From Corey's Hill, Brookline, Mass." (1864). In the volume he wrote the names and addresses of businesses and residences visited. He also recorded the outcome of the visit, indicating "Will not - Very doubtful", or "May when done". There is a column for notes such as "May by and by", "Can't afford", "Gone to war", and "Dead". The American Antiquarian Society has a copy of Richardson's lithograph.

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Daniel Robinson Diary, 1865-1866

Daniel Robinson (1777-1866) was born in Gloucester, Mass., the son of Ezekiel Robinson and Abigail Tarbox. and attended school in Newburyport, Mass. He lived in West Gardiner, Maine, after 1812 and taught school until 1830. He was the editor of several standard school books and of the Maine Farmers' Almanac from 1812 to 1864. He married Rebecca Bodge in 1798, and the couple had five children. Robinson kept this diary from July 24, 1865, to May 16, 1866, the last year of his life. The diary is full of introspective personal and religious commentary. On his 89th birthday (April 8, 1866) Robinson comments, "This is my Birthday: I am eighty nine years of age this day and a great sinner: an enormous violator of the laws and commandments of my God, though he hath been all my long sinful life through, so wonderfully and surprisingly merciful, and astonishingly gracious...". Robinson writes of using his telescope and notes the appearance and positions of Venus, Jupiter, and other planets and stars. On January 14, 1866, he records "...there was a shock of an earthquake in Hallowell and fissures or cracks and crevices were produced in the Earth by the sides of roads or streets.

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Solomon Sala Account Book, 1823-1837

Solomon Sala was a printer who worked in Buffalo Creek and Wellsburgh, Va. (later West Virginia), and Canton, Ohio.This volume contains Sala's business records. There are accounts for the printing in Buffalo Creek of the Christian Baptist, a periodical written and published by Alexander Campbell (1788-1866), one of the founders of the Disciples of Christ. In addition to accounts for printing services, there are records of general merchandise, grocery, and stationery goods sales. In 1831, Sala sold his printing establishment and German language newspaper (Vaterlandsfreund) to Peter Kaufmann (1800-1869), a German immigrant who came to the United States in 1817 and settled in Canton, Ohio, in 1828. From 1831 to 1837, there are subscription lists for the newspaper, records of printing services (advertisements, particularly), and accounts of sales of a German language almanac which Kaufmann also printed and published. He apparently transported large quantities of these almanacs to Philadelphia and western Pennsylvania and returned with general goods to be sold in Canton. Sales of these items as well as farm and print-shop labor exchanges are also included in the volume.

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Isaac Smith Papers, 1836-1869

Congregationalist Deacon Isaac Smith, Sr. (1795-1877) of Litchfield Corners, Maine, became associated with the Vermont Bible Society and acted as its general agent in the Mississippi Valley for twenty years. His son, George W. Smith (1832- ) bought books and other printed items for resale from W.B. Stearns, Portland, Maine, bookseller. Isaac Smith, Sr.'s son, Isaac (1822-1858), married Jane E. Bodwell. His brother, Benjamin Smith (1814-1858), was a graduate of Bowdoin College and taught for a time in Indiana. Among the Smith family's relatives were the Kimball family of Ipswich, Mass. Among them were Temperance Kimball (1782-1860), Daniel Kimball (1810-1888), and textile manufacturer, Augustine Phillips Kimball (1812-1859). The collection contains letters to Isaac Smith, Sr., concerning debts, business affairs, bookselling, agencies, or book subscriptions. Some dealings include those with W.B. Stearns Company. There are many family letters written by Deacon Smith's children that reference family activities. One poignantly describes the effect on the family of the deaths of brothers Benjamin and Isaac, Jr., just months apart. Sisters wrote to brothers about mundane matters as well.

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Smith Brothers & Co. Subscription Books, 1840-1855

Francis Smith (1823-1908), George Warren Smith (1825-1922), David Clifford Smith (1827-1911), and Benjamin Franklin Smith (1830-1927), all of South Freedom, Maine, worked together for a period of eight years producing a series of large folio city views. Beginning in 1846, George and Francis worked as subscription agents and salesmen for artist Edwin Whitefield, promoting his work of American cities. Together the names Whitefield and Smith appear as publishers of multiple city views over the span of four years. For reasons unknown, Whitefield and the Smith Brothers broke relations by 1850. The Smith Brothers continued to work as their own firm, independent of Whitefield. Between the years 1850 and 1855, the Smith Brothers' firm published almost thirty lithographic city views. Benjamin Franklin drew six of these views. Other artists employed by the Smith Brothers included John William Hill, Lewis Bradley, George James Robertson, and Charles Parsons. For unknown reasons, the firm abruptly stopped publishing in 1855. The brothers later made their fortune in gold mines, railroads, real estate and stockyards. They retired to Rockport, Maine, by the 1880s.

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Calvin Spaulding Account Books, 1820-1834

Calvin Spaulding (1797-1880) of Hallowell, Me., was a bookseller, stationer, and dealer in paper hangings from 1820 until his death. This collection consists of six account books, which illuminate Spaulding's bookselling and other business activities. The octavo volumes contain subscription records for the Advocate, probably the American Advocate, printed weekly in Hallowell, and for advertising. They include the name, town, and notations concerning the status of the subscriber's account. They range from 1829 to 1831. There is a folio volume containing an inventory or listing of the store's contents, 1820, by its owner, Samuel Kinsman Gilman (1796-1882) and a record of its sale to Spaulding, in addition to records of daily book and stationery sales to 1830. The remaining three folio volumes consist of a store ledger for 1822 to 1832 which contains book sales and general merchandise transactions and two volumes of inventories of books on stock: 1823 and 1831-1834.

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Thomas W. Streeter Papers, 1920-1965

Thomas Winthrop Streeter (1883-1965) of Morristown, N.J., was an attorney financier, and businessman before becoming a bibliographer, rare-book dealer, and owner of one of the largest collections of Americana in the country. His collection included early books, pamphlets, and maps, with a concentration on Texas history and Western transportation, 1795-1845. In 1952, Streeter published a bibliography of the items in his collection entitled America-Beginnings. He was president of the American Antiquarian Society from 1952 to 1955 and was a member of the boards of many libraries and historical societies.

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Strong, Charles D. Day Book, 1846-1853

Charles Dibble Strong, son of John and Elizabeth (Furzer) Strong, was born in Middle Chinnock, Somersetshire, England, June 19, 1808, and died at St. Paul, Minnesota, January 7, 1890. He was brought to Canada by his parents in 1819, and in 1825 all of the family, with the exception of him and his brother, James D., went to New York City. Charles D. Strong, being then an apprentice with H. H. Cunningham, to learn bookbinding and selling business, remained in Montreal for about three years longer, and then removed to Boston, Massachusetts in 1828. Here he continued working at his trade, becoming in time foreman of a shop. In 1830 he established an independent business as a bookseller, stationer and publisher, and specialized in the line of Methodist literature. He had become a member of this denomination while residing in Montreal, and was during his entire life a most earnest adherent to its faith. For many years he was the manager of the Methodist Book Rooms in Boston, and published the "Zion's Herald," the official Methodist church journal. One of his publications was entitled "A Pictorial Geography of the World" (Boston, 1856), which was issued in two large volumes, edited by the celebrated author, Samuel G. Goodrich, better known in those days as "Peter Parley." This day book covers the years 1846-1853 for his business in publishing and book selling.

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Stroop & Bailey Printing Co. Account Book, 1839-1840

This account book from Stroop & Bailey Printing Company spans the years 1839-1840.

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T.H. Miller and C.W. Brewster (Firm) Account Book, 1827-1830

Tobias Ham Miller (1801-1870) and Charles Warren Brewster (1802-1869) were the publishers of the Portsmouth Journal, N.H. from 1825 to 1834, when Brewster became sole owner. They also published the New Hampshire Observer from 1827 to 1831. Miller was a Portsmouth printer beginning in 1818 and later a bookseller, publisher, editor of several journals, and writer of sketches until 1870. He was also a clergyman in the Universalist Church. Brewster was a printer, lecturer, biographer, poet, and historian, having written the two-volume Rambles About Portsmouth in 1859. The collection consists of one account book covering 1827 to 1830 and a folder of twenty undated items, apparently rough drafts of serialized stories and other writings for the Observer, and a few letters to the editor. The account book for the Observer is a daily list of commercial advertisers, their products, and the cost of the ad; all other classified advertisements, such as land sales, job listings, and public notices; printing orders from individuals and companies are also included. Included is a deed of sale for the Rockingham Gazette to Miller and Brewster.

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Taylor Family Papers, 1880-1937

Charles Henry Taylor (1846-1921) was creator of the modern Boston Globe and its editor for forty-eight years. He was a veteran of the Civil War and had also served in the Massachusetts legislature. His son, Charles Henry Taylor, Jr. (1867-1941), was treasurer and director of the Globe Newspaper Company for forty-four years, was known as an antiquarian and collector of rare books and prints, and held memberships in many historical and literary societies and scholarly organizations. Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., was also a collector of Depression Era scrip, and Box 3 contains samples of this scrip from "M.J. Whittall Associates Ltd." and "Worcester Clearing House Association" along with related correspondence. The collection also includes seventeen scrapbooks of newspaper clippings compiled by Charles Henry Taylor, Jr. The clippings relate to printing processes, printing history, libel, newspaper editors and journalists, and topics of general interest. This collection contains correspondence of Charles Henry Taylor and Charles Henry Taylor, Jr., from renowned publishers and journalists, book collectors, businessmen, and friends, 1880-1937. Included are references to articles for publication, Associated press meetings, the preparation of obituaries of various publishers.

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Isaiah Thomas Papers, 1748-1874

Isaiah Thomas was a man who by his own efforts became one of the leading printers, publishers, and booksellers of the United States. He came from a poor family and after an eleven year apprenticeship to Zechariah Fowle as a typesetter traveled from the West Indies to Nova Scotia as a journeyman. In 1770 Thomas returned to Boston and established a newspaper, the "Massachusetts Spy," that served as news organ of the Whigs. Shortly before the Battle of Lexington, Thomas moved his press and types to safety in Worcester where he continued to advocate the patriots' cause. Thomas remained in Worcester for 56 years, prospering in his printing and publishing business which eventually included newspapers, a paper mill, a bindery, and bookshops. In 1802 he retired a wealthy man to devote the rest of his years to scholarship. He wrote "History of Printing in America," the first history of American printing and a substantive reference work (1810). In 1812 he founded and incorporated the American Antiquarian Society to which he gave his library collection, newspaper files, and more than $20,000. This comprehensive collection of personal and business papers reflects Thomas' meticulous attention to financial details, irascible personality in dealing with business associates, and paternal concern for his extended family.

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Robert Bailey Thomas Papers, 1792-1846

Robert Bailey Thomas (1766-1846), of Sterling and West Boylston, Mass., was the son of William and Azabah Thomas. From an early age, Thomas desired to publish an almanac, but found he lacked the needed mathematical skill. He became an apprentice book binder and soon began a career as a bookseller. This in turn renewed his interest in publishing almanacs, so Thomas attended a mathematics school in Boston. In 1793, he published his Farmer's Almanack. Thomas had a good sense of what his subscribers desired in an almanac. He refused to include the traditional signs of the zodiac as a frontispiece and added poetry, agricultural advice, and patriotic sayings. Between the years 1820 and 1830 over 200,000 copies of his almanacs were sold. Thomas continued editing and publishing his _Old Farmer's Almanac until his death in 1846. This collection contains seventeen handwritten drafts for Thomas' almanacs for the years 1794, 1828-1837, 1839, two for 1841, 1844, and two for 1846. There are also receipts and business correspondence to John West (1770-1827), Melvin Lord (1791-1876), and Eleazor Tyng Fox Richardson (1787-1829), partners in the Boston printing firm of West, Richardson, and Lord. These letters contain Thomas' requests for books and printing supplies and information about the publication of the almanacs. There are also two contracts between Thomas and his printers.

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Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co. Account Book, 1846-1852

This bookseller's account book is ascribed to Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co., 253 High Street in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The volume spans the period 2 November 1846 to 30 October 1852. The firm was involved in book sales, wholesale distribution of books, and publishing interests. The volume includes a daily record of sales of books to booksellers; cash accounts, 3 November 1846-10 August 1852; and lists of books returned on consignment, 16 June 1848 to 4 October 1852. The company dealt with booksellers in many localities in addition to Pennsylvania and New York, e.g., Kentucky, Tennessee, Massachusetts, Ohio, Illinois, North Carolina, Georgia, and Virginia. The books were primarily biographical, historic, and religious in nature. The firms that did business with Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co. included: F.F. Brainard of Norfolk, Va., and O.W. Kibbe of Springfield, Mass. The firm was involved in distributing James Fenimore Cooper's Naval History, several books by John Frost (1800-1859), and John Sanderson's Biography of the Signers to the Declaration of Independence.

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Ticknor and Fields Account Book, 1858-9

This Ticknor and Fields volume is a uniquely detailed account book from 1858-9 that tracked sewing and folding costs by 29 different women bookbinders. Each binder's name is listed at the top of the page with their assigned duties. Bookbinders names are as follows: Emily E Gorton, Lizzie H Flaherty, Eliza F Warren, Sara C Thomas, Addie A Warren, Annah N Hall, Anna F Hastings, Kate Cassidy, Mary J Dalton, Julia A Page, Mary C Tucker, Isabella Lopez, Lissie H Kennedy, Margaret N Harkness, Sarah A Hayes, Sarah T Banard, Add Hastings, Abbie W Gookin, Mattie F Brown, Victoria A Stevens, Emily A Shoultz, Lizzie A Coffran, Celia Carley, Annah M Pacmen, and Mary G Beaty. It is particularly rare for an account book from this time lists the names of binders, making this piece even more interesting. Ledgers in general shows date, job performed (I.e. sewing or folding), partial title or author of book, and cost for work done. The sewing jobs in particular have an interesting accounting structure, and seem to have base costs or codes for each book being bound, however, it is not exactly known how cost for work is calculated based on those numbers. The volume was later owned and repurposed by Elizabeth E Breckinridge (1849- ) in 1865 when she was 16 years old. Her notes include various essays and "mental philosophies" (pages 99 and 117), and are possibly school exercises

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Tileston & Hollingsworth Co. Papers, 1755-1963

Papermaking in Massachusetts began in 1730 when a mill went into operation on the Neponset River in Milton. By 1800, six paper mills had been established on the river. James Boies (1702-1798), a native of Ireland, entered the business in 1760, when he went to work for his father-in-law, Jeremiah Smith (1704-1790), who was another Irish immigrant. In 1765, Boies built a paper mill of his own on the Neponset in partnership with Richard Clark ( -1777). A few years later, he built another mill in partnership with his son-in-law, Hugh McLean (1724-1799), who had also been born in Ireland. The partnership between Boies and McLean lasted until 1790. In 1798, Boies hired Mark Hollingsworth (1777-1855), who had been born in Delaware. Hollingsworth probably learned the papermaking trade as an apprentice at Thomas Gilpin's mill near Wilmington. In 1801, Hollingsworth formed a partnership with Edmund I. Tileston (1775-1834) of Dorchester, Mass. Together they operated a mill leased from Boies' son, Jeremiah Smith Boies (1762-1851). As the firm prospered, Tileston and Hollingsworth bought, leased, or built additional mills on the Neponset, and by 1843 they were a large concern, operating all of the paper mills on the river. Tileston and Hollingsworth Company was incorporated in 1889, and continued as a major manufacturer of paper well into the twentieth century.

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Royal Charles Treat Subscription Book, 1862

Royal Charles Treat (1839- ) was a publisher and bookseller in Chicago, Ill. He was born on 25 December 1839 in Glastonbury, Conn., to Edwin Stratton and Nancy Buck Treat, and is the brother of Erastus Buck Treat (1838-1928). On 24 December 1868 he married Catherine E. Eberhart, of Vinton, Ia. She and an infant died the following year. Treat never remarried. This subscription book, inscribed on the front flyleaf "R. C. Treat Newburgh, N.Y.," contains partially-printed pages made up of four columns entitled: Subscribers' Name; No. of Copies; Residence; and Occupation. Treat travelled New York State, mainly west and south of Newburgh, N.Y., seeking subscriptions for four books proposed to be published. The volume contains broadsides for three of the proposed books: Proposals for Publishing the Illustrated Life of Washington, By J. T. Headley ...; Proposals for Publishing Chaplains and Clergy of the Revolution. By Hon. J. T. Headley ...; and Proposals for Publishing The Christian Home ... by Rev. S. Philips, A. M. Also included are two copies of a business card-sized, printed prospectus, signed by E. B. Treat, for Headley's Life of Washington, which were probably left with subscribers.

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Walker and Jewett Co. Account Book, 1875-1878

During the 1870s the firm of Walker and Jewett published atlases for counties throughout New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. In later years George Hiram Walker (1852-1927) published lithographs with his brother, Oscar W. Walker, as the Walker Lithograph and Publishing Company and established the Walker-Gordon Milk Laboratory. This account book details the expenditures of the firm of Walker & Jewett and has entries for accounts with F.W. Beers, E.H. Hyde, and Samuel Triscott as well as payments for travel expenses, food, clothing, haircuts, horse-keeping, and shoes. They traveled extensively and produced maps for Camden County, New Jersey, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, and Tioga County, Pennsylvania and New York. Beginning in 1878 Oscar and George Walker make entries for canvassing and surveying in Worcester, Millbury, and Westborough, Massachusetts, including Holy Cross College.

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West, Richardson & Lord Business Records, 1792-1855

John West (1770-1827) was a bookseller in Boston from 1793 to 1820. Over the years his business incorporated the following partners: his brother David West (1765-1810), Eleazer Tyng Fox Richardson (1787-1829), Melvin Lord (1791-1876), and John Calvin Holbrook (1808-1900). In 1820 John West sold his interests in the business. The firm was known variously as: 1796, D. & J. West (with his brother David West); 1808-1812, John West & Company (with E. T. F. Richardson); 1812-1818, West & Richardson (with E. T. F. Richardson; 1818-1820, West, Richardson & Lord (with E. T. F. Richardson and Melvin Lord); 1820-1829 Richardson & Lord; 1829-1832, Richardson, Lord & Holbrook (the firm retained Richardson's name after his death; with John Calvin Holbrook). In 1832 Lord disposed of his interest in the concern to Holbrook, reserving to himself some pecuniary interests in the copyrights. Shortly thereafter Holbrook sold his interest to other parties and returned to business in Brattleboro, Vermont. The bulk of this collection falls within the period late 1790s through the 1830s. The collection includes business correspondence, bills from printers, bills for presses and type, inventory records, and legal documents (partnership agreements, copyright certificates, and leases).

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Whittemore Family Account Books, 1805-1842.

The collection includes a total of 9 account books that show daily financial transactions from 1806-1836. Four of the volumes are believed to belong to John Whittemore the bookbinder. It is unknown exactly who the other 6 volumes (a mix of waste books and ledger) belonged to, but they contain transactions from Clark and John Whittemore as well as other family members. There are also transactions from Isaiah Thomas Jr., son of Isaiah Thomas, who around this time, in the early part of the 19th cent) would have taken over his father's successful book binding business. This provides further evidence that the Whittemores were doing business with the Thomases at the time and would have been part of the larger community of binders in the Worcester area. All volumes contain specific names of binders, and others, who conducted business with the Whittemores with some titles of books as well. Transactions are accepted with cash and other goods. Some other Whittemores are mentioned throughout and gives insight into the inner dealings within the family itself. The account books span the years 1806 through about 1836.

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Williams, Robert Foster Account Book, 1834-1845

Robert Foster Williams was born in Williamsburg, Massachusetts, on 2 December 1808. It appears he was an itinerant merchant, specializing in books, but also offering, in the spring months, his gardening services, performing "ingrafting" and the planting or sale of "cions". It seems he settled in Hampton, New Hampshire, after his marriage to Sarah Abigail Tuxbury (b. 1816), the daughter of James and Sarah (Coffin) Tuxbury, where he took up farming. Robert and Sarah had two sons: Joseph Freeman Williams (b. 1840) and James Prescott Williams (1842-1881).

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Wilson, Lyman H Account Book, 1849-1855

Lyman H. Wilson ( - ) was a bookbinder in Milton, Pennsylvania during the middle part of the nineteenth century. He was also town postmaster for the period 1849 to 1853 and performed many odd jobs for the predominantly German residents of the Milton area. Wilson's account book spans the period 9 November 1849 to 1 April 1855 and contains entries concerning his bookbinding trade, post office accounts, and other jobs performed. Many entries reflect a barter economy. Wilson's bookbinding business included the binding of unidentified periodicals, books and newspapers, as well as specific titles, such as Harper's, Phrenological Journal, McCauley's History, Johnson's Dictionary, medical, music, and law books. Among the odd jobs performed by Wilson were weighing and hauling coal, cleaning muskets, household repairs, and papering the schoolroom. The postal duties referred to were the sale of stamps, box rentals, and the purchase of paper. The volume also contains entries concerning house and office rent, cash lent, and sundry banking and cash accounts.

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Worcester Spy Company Business Records, 1904

The Massachusetts Spy was established in Boston by Isaiah Thomas (1749-1831) in 1770, where it became the leading newspaper of the patriots. Thomas removed it to Worcester, Mass., in 1775, and during the next 100 years, the newspaper changed hands frequently until 1899, when it was purchased by Charles Nutt (1868-1918) who conducted it as the Worcester Spy Company. In addition to printing and publishing, Nutt's company manufactured and sold printing machinery and supplies. He served as president, editor, and publisher until 1904 when the company suspended publications. The records of the Worcester Spy Company for 1904 contain detailed bylaws and minutes of the formation of a corporation, including lists of subscribers and the amounts of stock. There are also brief minutes of stockholders' and directors' meetings as well as three certificates of shares. The formation of the corporation was apparently an attempt to save the floundering company.

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