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Level of Certainty

To emphasize the conjectural nature of identifying self-publishing, we've included tags to indicate our level of certainty that this text has been self-published. There are four levels of certainty:

1. Possibly Self-Published

These texts are either printed by job printers, have "printed by" or an equivalent in the imprint, have no publication information, or are on our list through outside information, as is the case with Benjamin Banneker's almanacs. The reason for the text's inclusion is listed as a separate tag. We have over-included texts rather than exclude possibilities, so many items at this level are likely to not have been self-published. 

2. Probably Self-Published

Either because of additional printing details, the author's publication of other texts, or other information, these works are more likely to be self-published, but are not stated as self-published.

3. Certainly Self-Published

Conclusive out-of-text information indicates this work was self-published

4. Stated Self-Published

Either the text or the imprint clearly indicates this work was published by the author. 

If you'd like to limit your search to only one level of certainty, click on the corresponding tag.