Before Elsa and Olaf

Palmer Cox, Brownie Year Book. New York: McLoughlin Brothers, 1895.

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Cox’s Brownies appeared in dozens of books for children from 1879 to 1924, published by a variety of firms including Appleton, Century Co., and McLoughlin Brothers.  They also appeared on dishes, fabric, toys, and Kodak even named a camera after them. Many historians consider the sprites to be the first example of mass-marketing using cartoon figures.  The Brownies just wanted to have fun, as can be seen in this illustration of a winter toboggan race.

Adopted by Carol-Ann P. Mackey

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